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|政治大學華人宗教研究中心-《華人宗教研究》第9期,「歷史與當代地方道教研究 專輯II」出刊|

中心公告
張貼人:李家愷公告日期:2017-08-16
 
|政治大學華人宗教研究中心-《華人宗教研究》第9期,「歷史與當代地方道教研究 專輯II」出刊|

目次

林振源|導論

專輯論文
謝世維|宋元道教清微法與地方密教傳統
高振宏|朝封、道封與民封:從三個例子談敕封對神祇信仰的形塑與影響
巫能昌|閩西客家地區的道教儀式:三朝醮個案
羅丹、徐天基|華北地方道教儀式:以當代河北廣宗縣三旦夕村醮為例

一般論文
蘇慶華|麻六甲王船巡遊的譜系:以麻六甲勇全殿為例

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宋元道教清微法與地方密教傳統

謝世維
國立政治大學宗教研究所教授

摘要
  本文探討宋元道教清微派與地方密教之關係。清微派並不是一個完整而一貫體系的宗派,是系統複雜而多重體系的代稱。本文試著探討清微派標準化策略背後的地方宗教多元性,一方面形塑多元清微法之「共相」,另一方面討論清微派與地方宗教傳統之關係,並呈現其區域之「殊相」。清微教法於宋末在廣西、福建地區逐漸形成。除了統合了當時與先前的諸種道教傳承並確立其教法權威,也廣泛傳布於各地知識階層,其徒眾遍及浙江、江西、湖北、雲南等地,但也同時發展出各種地方性的清微法。其中清微法對地方密教諸如瑜伽法、穢跡法的吸收,顯示著清微法與地方密教傳統有著互動關係。本文從現存清微法文獻當中,梳理與地方密教相關的材料,並論述其間之關係。

關鍵字:道教、清微法、密教、趙宜真、天罡大聖

Pure Tenuity Method (Qingwei fa 清微法) in Song and Yuan Dynasty Daoism and Local Esoteric Buddhist Traditions

Hsieh Shu-wei
Professor, Graduate Institute of Religious Studies, National Chengchi University

Abstract
This paper explores the relationship between Qingwei branch Daoism and local religions. The Qingwei branch is not a complete or consistently structured group, but rather a collective term for a systematized, complex, multi-faceted body of religious practices. This paper attempts to explore the multiplicity of local religion behind strategies to standardize the Qingwei branch, in one regard the commonalities in the formation of multiple forms of Qingwei methods, in another regard discussing the relationship between the Qingwei branch and local religious traditions and the divergences that emerged in localities. At the end of the Song dynasty, Qingwei Daoist teachings and methods were gradually forming in southern Chinese provinces like Guangxi and Fujian. Besides integrating various Daoist lineages, both earlier and current, as well as establishing authority for its teachings and methods, the movement spread widely among China’s intelligentsia, and its disciples dispersed in Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Hubei and Yunnan provinces. Yet, at the same time, each region developed various kinds of local Qingwei methods. In this, the absorption of local esoteric Buddhist rituals such as Yoga and Ucchuṣma rites into the Qingwei methods illustrates the interactive relationship between local esoteric Buddhism and Qingwei methods. This paper, drawing on extant sources of Qingwei methods, sorts out the materials related to local esoteric Buddhism and analyzes the relationship between the two traditions.

Keywords: Daoism, Pure Tenuity Method, Esoteric Buddhism, Zhao Yizhen,
Ucchuṣma

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朝封、道封與民封:從三個例子談敕封對神祇信仰的形塑與影響

高振宏
政治大學中文系助理教授

摘要
  中國神祇在信仰發展過程中常被冠上各式封號,這些封號有些來自朝廷的敕封(朝封)、有些來自宗教神啟或宗教傳統的加封(道封)、有些則是民間自行加上的封號(民封),彼此間有複雜而糾葛的互動關係,常會影響神祇信仰發展的方向,關涉著中國人的宗教思維方式。本文以溫瓊太保、二徐真君、田都元帥三個例子,討論朝封、道封與民封在神祇信仰發展過程的可能影響,及其間的互動與張力,希望藉此觀察民間社會是如何理解與接受不同敕封系統的意義,同時進行屬於他們的詮釋或改寫,在彼此互動中形塑出現今理解的神祇形象與近世宗教文化。

關鍵字:敕封、道教、溫元帥、二徐真人、田都元帥

Conferred Titles from the Imperial Court, Daoists, and the Populace: A Discussion of Conferred Titles in Three Examples and the Impact of the Titles on the Formation of Beliefs about Deities

Kao Chen-hung
Assistant Professor, Department of Chinese Literature, National Chengchi University

Abstract
  Chinese Deities, as beliefs about them develop, are often crowned with various conferred titles. Some of these conferred titles come from the imperial court (chaofeng 朝封), some are bestowed through religious revelation or religious traditions (Daofeng 道封), while others are titles added by the populace on their own accord (minfeng 民封). Among these various titles, there are interactions both complex and disputed, which often influence the development of beliefs about the deities, a notion that concerns Chinese religious modes of thinking. This article, through the examples of Marshal Wenqiong (溫瓊元帥), the Er-Xu Lords (二徐真君), and Marshal Tiandu (田都元帥), discusses the impact that conferred titles from the imperial court, Daoists, and populace had upon the development of beliefs about these deities, as well as the interaction and tension between these titles. It is hoped that through this we can observe how popular society understood and accepted meanings from different systems of conferred titles, while at the same time offering its own interpretations and revisions. In this mutual interaction,understandings of the images of deities and modern religious culture formed and arose.

Keywords: conferred titles, Daoism, Marshal Wenqiong 溫瓊元帥, Er-Xu Lords
二徐真君, Marshal Tiandu 田都元帥

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閩西客家地區的道教儀式:三朝醮個案

巫能昌
復旦大學歷史系講師

摘要
  文章考察了閩西客家地區由正一派道士主持的一場三朝醮。文章將醮儀置於所在社區的脈絡進行初步分析,在細緻描述醮事背景和醮儀展演的基礎上,主要探討了信眾對醮儀的態度、道士對儀式的操演和社區儀式系統。我們將看到,信眾主要為醮儀的展開提供了一個舞臺,並通過醮儀使自己信仰的神明得到尊崇。道士對儀式的操演主要體現為其對神明、邪鬼、孤魂、信眾的不同處理方式。具體的儀式、儀節與各類文檢又將這幾個方面互相聯繫在一起。相對於其它儀式傳統,道教可以處理超自然世界與社區相聯繫的更多方面。這或許就是信眾請道士主持醮事的結構性原因。

關鍵字:閩西客家地區、道教儀式、正一道士、醮、社區

Daoist Rituals in the Hakka Area of Western Fujian: A Case Study of a Three-Day Jiao 醮 Ritual

Wu Neng-chang
Lecturer, Department of History, Fudan University

Abstract
The article examines a three-day jiao ritual presided over by Zhengyi 正一(Orthodox Unity) Daoist priests in the Hakka area of western Fujian. The author undertakes a preliminary analysis of this jiao ritual by placing it within the community context. On the basis of carefully describing the ritual’s background and performance, the author focuses discussion on attitudes of the believers toward the jiao ritual, Daoist priests’ ritual performance, and the community ritual system. We will see that the believers have mainly provided a stage for the unfolding of the jiao ritual, and through the ritual achieve the veneration of the gods they themselves follow. Daoist priests, in the ritual performance, primarily embody different ways of dealing with gods, malevolent ghosts, orphaned souls, and believers. These aspects are integrated together in specific rituals, ritual segments, and various types of documents. In comparison with other ritual traditions, Daoism can deal with more aspects of the supernatural world and their association with the community. This is perhaps the structural reason why believers invite Daoist priests to preside over jiao rituals.

Keywords: Hakka area of western Fujian, Daoist ritual, Zhengyi 正一 Daoists, jiao 醮 ritual, community

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華北地方道教儀式:以當代河北廣宗縣三旦夕村醮為例

羅丹 
臺灣中央研究院民族學研究所博士後研究員

徐天基
深圳大學文化產業研究院助理研究員

摘要
  1990 年代以來,海外漢學研究掀起了對中國大陸地方道教儀式實地考察的新風尚。然而,這些田野考察的地域範圍多集中在長江以南的地區,對於華北地方道教的田野研究尚處在起步階段。本文是對當代河北廣宗縣村落三旦夕醮儀的田野考察,希冀以此豐富有關華北地方道教研究的民族志材料。
  河北省廣宗縣(原屬鉅鹿縣)為東漢末年張角領導之黃巾起義的發源地,廣宗歷來素有打醮的傳統,其起始年代,現已無文獻可考。自1980 年代以來,打醮的醮期多為一至五天不等,可分為兩種類型:一種為村醮,它是以村落為單位組織的社區集體儀式,週期為隔年;一種為開光醮,是村落在新廟落成後舉行的建醮儀式,連續三年。該地區的道教儀式是筆者於華北地區的田野考察中所能發現的最為完整與傳統的道教科儀,這更新了學界對北方民間道教儀式的認識。

關鍵字:打醮、華北地方道教、民間道士、靈寶科儀

Local Daoist Ritual in Northern China: A Case Study of a Three-Day Jiao 醮 (Offering) Ritual in Contemporary Guangzong 廣宗 County, Hebei 河北

Luo Dan
Postdoctoral Fellow, Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica

Xu Tianji
Assistant Research Fellow, Institute for Cultural Industries, Shenzhen University

Abstract
Since the 1990s, overseas scholars in Chinese studies have set off a new trend in fieldwork research on local Daoist rituals in Mainland China. However, the regional scope of this fieldwork research has generally centered on the area south of the Yangzi River. Fieldwork research on local Daoism in Northern China has remained at an inchoate stage. This article is a fieldwork report on a three-day jiao ritual in a contemporary village in Guangzong County, Hebei Province. Through this paper, we hope to enrich the ethnographic material on local Daoism in Northern China. As the birthplace of the Yellow Turbans Uprising, led by Zhang Jiao 張角 at the close of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Guangzong County (originally Julu 巨鹿 county) in Hebei province has consistently demonstrated a tradition of holding jiao rituals through the ages. Yet, now there are no longer reliable materials regarding the tradition’s date of origin. Since the 1980s, the period of holding a jiao has been one to five days. This tradition can be divided into two categories of jiao: one is the village jiao, organized by a singular organization of the community collective on behalf of the village and held every other year; the other is the consecration jiao (kaiguang 開光), a ritual held by the village after a new temple has been completed, which continues for three years. The Daoist rituals of this area are the most complete and traditional Daoist rituals we have discovered during our fieldwork in Northern China. This renews our understanding of local Daoist rituals in the north.

Keywords: jiao 醮, Daoism in Northern China, local Daoist priest 民間道士, Lingbao rituals

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麻六甲王船巡遊的譜系:以麻六甲勇全殿為例

蘇慶華
博士,馬來亞大學中文系

摘要
  作為福建人佔大多數的麻六甲州,於宗教場所方面留下了漳、泉人士熱衷祭祀的王爺廟宇。州內的勇全殿池王爺廟和清華宮朱王爺廟歷史最悠久。其最為人稱道的活動乃淨化區域、每隔若干年舉辦一次的「王船遊行盛會」。由勇全殿主導、以朱、溫、池、李、白「五府王爺」名義聯合舉行的王船大遊行自1911 年始,最近三次於1933,2001 和2012 年隆重舉辦。2012 舉行為期6 天的「全安王舡龍虎消災清醮」王船祭盛會,規模更甚往昔。此外,本文亦重點介紹已失傳的《採蓮曲》歌詞,冀有助瞭解麻六甲王船巡遊的內容。

關鍵字:麻六甲州、五府王爺、王船遊行盛會、採蓮曲

A Genealogy of the Melaka Royal Boat Inspection Parade: The Example of the Yongquan dian 勇全殿 (Hall of Perfected Bravery) in Melaka

Soo Khin-wah
Doctor, Department of Chinese Studies, University of Malaya

Abstract
People of Fujian represent the majority in the Melaka state. In terms of the religious arena, they have left behind Wangye temples, where people of Zhang 漳 and Quan 泉 surnames enthusiastically offer sacrifices. The history of the Yongquan dian of the Chi wangye miao (Lord Chi Temple) and Qinghua Gong 清華宮 (Palace of Pure Splendor) of the Zhu wangye miao 朱王爺廟 (Lord Zhu Temple) within the Melaka state is the longest. The temples’ most commended activity is the Grand Gathering for the Royal Boat Parade, organized to purify the community settlements and held once every few years. Under the guidance of the Yongquan dian, these temples held the inaugural Royal Boat Grand Parade in 1911, which brought together the Wufu wangye 五府王爺 (Lords of the Five Bureaus): of Zhu 朱, Wen 溫, Chi 池, Li 李, and Bai 白. Recently, this event has been ceremoniously sponsored three times in 1933, 2001 and 2012 respectively. In 2012, the Quan’an Wangkang longhu xiaozai qingjiao 全安王舡龍虎消災清醮 (Pure Offering for Dispelling Disasters of the Royal Boat of Longhu), a grand gathering for sacrifice to the Royal Boat, was held for six days; the scale was even greater than past celebrations. Furthermore, this paper focuses on introducing the long-lost lyrics of the “Cai lian qu”採蓮曲(“Plucking the Lotus Melody”) in the hope that this helps to understand the substance of the Melaka Royal Boat Inspection Parade.

Keywords: Melaka, Wufu wangye 五府王爺 (Lords of the Five Bureaus), Grand
Gathering for the Royal Boat Parade,“Cai lian qu”採蓮曲 (“Plucking the Lotus Melody”)


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