|政治大學華人宗教研究中心-《華人宗教研究》第10期,「歷史與當代地方道教研究 專輯III」出刊|

 |政治大學華人宗教研究中心-《華人宗教研究》第10期,「歷史與當代地方道教研究 專輯III」|




王 崗|明代淨明道與江西地方社會

Ting, Jen-chieh|A Contemporary Adaption and Transformation of Chinese Folk Religion: Revelations Brought by the Huiling 會靈 (Collective Trance) Movement




The Formation of Universal Salvation Rites

Matsumoto, Koichi
Professor, Faculty of Library, Information and Media Science, University of Tsukuba

Universal salvation rites are held for the comfort of orphaned souls and vengeful ghosts. After the basic forms of universal salvation rites were realized in the Song period, Chinese communities have continuously attached importance to this ritual. This paper summarizes the author’s former presentations related to the formational process of Daoist universal salvation rites, the transformational process by which the Buddhist ritual act of feasting hungry ghosts developed into universal salvation rites, as well as the relationship between these two developments. The second section then surveys Chinese popular beliefs about orphaned souls and vengeful ghosts and the relationship of official sacrifices during the Middle Prime Festival to the universal salvation rites. The third section introduces the transformational process by which the Buddhist ritual act of feasting hungry ghosts developed into a universal salvation. The fourth section discusses the content and features of universal salvation rites recorded in Du Guangting's 杜光庭 Taishang huanglu zhaiyi 太上黃籙齋儀 (Most High Liturgies for the Yellow Register Retreat), Jiang Shuyu's 蔣叔輿 Wushang huanglu dazhai lichen yi 無上黃籙大齋立成儀 (Standard Liturgies of the Supreme Great Yellow Register Retreat), and Jin Yunzhong's 金允中 Shangqing Lingbao dafa 上清靈寶大法 (Great Rites of the Numinous Treasure of Highest Clarity). The fifth section discusses the formational process of the Buddhist Water and Land Retreat and introduces its content according to the Fajie shengfan shuilu shenghui xiuzhai yigui 法界聖凡水陸勝會修齋儀軌(Ritual Commentary on the Water and Land Grand Gathering Cultivation Retreat for Sages and Ordinary People of the Dharma Realm).

Keywords: Buddhism, Daoism, universal salvation rites





The Usurped Position of Maoshan Zongshi (Master)

Sakai Norifumi
Lecturer, Faculty of Business and Commerce, Keio University

In the Southern Song dynasty, Daoist Priests called “Zongshi 宗師” managed the transmission of the Highest Purity scriptures and registers 上清經籙at famous Daoism holy mountain Maoshan 茅山. The successive Zongshi were besed in Yuanfu Wanning gong 元符萬寧宮( also called Zongtan 宗壇)and conducted kinds of religious activities there, so they were regarded as authorities in Southern China Daoism then.
However, in the final stages of Southern Song dynasty, Daoist priest called Zhu Zhichang 朱知常from Jinhua Chisongshan 金華赤松山 usurped the position of Zongshi of Maoshan. This incident was caused by some peculiar administration systems of Daoist monasteries at that time and the confusion of Maoshan in transition from Southern Song to Yuan dynasty.
This paper elucidates the background of this incident and explains the administration systems of Daoist monasteries of Southern Song dynasty and the interaction of Daoist priests from some districts in the capital.

Keywords: Daoism, Daoguan (abbeys), Maoshan, Zongshi (Master), Southern
Song dynasty





Jingming Daoism and Local Jiangxi Society in the Ming Dynasty

Richard G. Wang
Associate Professor, Department of African & Asian Languages and Literatures, University of Florida

From the perspective of such local religious practices as the domiciles of the Shi’er zhenjun 十二真君 (Twelve Perfected Lords), the worship of their sacred sites, seasonal festival celebrations regarding Jingming zhongxiao dao (The Pure and Bright Way of Loyalty and Filiality) or simply Jingming dao, the response of the local Jiangxi Jingming dao tradition towards Liu Yuanran’s 劉淵然 Jingming genealogy artificially reconstructed by elite Daoists, the Daoist temple networks of Nanchang and Ruizhou prefectures that span ten counties and one subprefecture, and local incense worship, this essay investigates Jingming dao of the Ming and situates it within the patterns of local Jiangxi society. Applying anthropological approaches and methodology to the social history of Daoism, the author of this study concludes that there was never any concrete transmission of Jingming liturgical methods during the Ming in the region in which Jingming dao originated and prevailed. Since the Ming, Jingming dao on the one hand referred to the Daoist movement that revered Xu zhenjun 許真君 (Perfected Lord Xu [i.e. Xu Xun 許遜]) and emphasized ideas of loyalty and filiality. On the other hand, it denoted the local Jiangxi deity worship of the Shi’er zhenjun, which included Xu Xun as a protective god of Jiangxi. Reflected in seasonal festivals, this Daoist movement associated with Jiangxi local deity worship was enlivened and prolonged through Jingming dao temple networks. In this sense, all Daoist priests active within the Daoist temple networks were considered Jingming Daoists, and the local patrons and lineages involved in the worship of the Jiangxi protective god Xu zhenjun constituted Jingming dao followers and communities. Jingming dao was both an open-ended and localized movement in the Ming, a characteristic which significantly distinguished it from other Daoist schools or lineages.

Keywords: Jingming dao 淨明道 (The Pure and Bright Way [of Loyalty and Filiality], Liu Yuanran 劉淵然, Shi’er zhenjun 十二真君 (Twelve Perfected Lords), temple network, lineage

A Contemporary Adaption and Transformation of Chinese Folk Religion: Revelations Brought by the Huiling 會靈 (Collective Trance) Movement

Ting Jen-chieh
Research Fellow, Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica

After the 1990s, in the local religious sphere in Taiwan, Huiling, a spirit writing movement, rose as a flourishing collective, a group that now receives widespread scholarly attention. This paper seeks to move forward from previous research and, through this example, discuss the subject of how Han Chinese folk religion faces the transformations of modernity and correspondingly adapts. Huiling is an image of collectively shared Han Chinese local beliefs; moreover, it is a system of religious practices, transformed in its intrinsic meaning from a symbolic system that had its origins in folk religious beliefs. This system exists simultaneously with folk religious beliefs and extends that symbolic system of Han Chinese folk religion into the contemporary world with a higher plausibility. This paper points out that, in the contrast between two forms of exposition, coherence theory and correspondence theory, Han Chinese folk religious beliefs can be regarded as a of kind disconnect from empirical evidence and possess a propositional system, intrinsically harmonious with this form of coherence theory. This system is openly facing the challenges engendered by the empirical evidence of modernity. As we observe through this example of the Huiling, its methods of adaptation are not those that answer to empirical evidence, but are instead a new model of transformation and practice that results from internal alterations to enter an even more transcendent standing and progress as a declaration of truth and bodily links. In this example of the Huiling, this new orientation includes remolding the emergence of a new systemization of the xiantian ling 先天靈 (spirits of the prior heavens), Xiantian mu 先天母 (Mother of the Prior Heavens), huiling 會靈 (collective of spirits), and a fresh definition of old landscape. This new orientation of symbolic markers assists in increasing the transcendency of Han Chinese folk religion and helping belief systems adapt in the present age.

Keywords: Coherence Theory, collective trance, Chinese folk religion, private
temple altar, modernity



  1990 年代以後在台灣地方宗教場域裡蓬勃發展的集體性起乩運動會靈,目前已廣為學界所注意,本文進一步想由這個例子,來討論漢人民間信仰面對現代性的轉化與適應議題。會靈是與既有漢人地方信仰共用相同的地景,而且是在民間信仰原有象徵系統上進行內在意義轉化的一套宗教實踐系統,這套系統在與民間信仰並存的同時,也擴大了漢人民間信仰象徵系統在當代世界裡的「可信性」的基礎。本文指出,在「融貫理論」與「符合理論」兩種論述型態的對比下,漢人民間信仰可以被視為一種與經驗事實脫鉤,而具有一套高內在協調性的「融貫理論式」的命題系統。當這套系統面臨現代性所產生的經驗證據的挑戰時,我們觀察到,以會靈運動為例,其適應方式不是以經驗事實來做回應,而是透過內在性的論述轉化與新的實踐模式,而進入了一個更為超越性的層次來進行真理宣稱和身體連結。在會靈的例子裡,這些新的取向包括了︰先天靈、先天母、會靈、地景的重塑與新修行制度的浮現等等,這些象徵符號的新取向,有助於提高漢人民間信仰象徵系統的超越性,並且也有助於漢人民間信仰適應於當代世界。


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