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|政治大學華人宗教研究中心-《華人宗教研究》第11期出刊|

中心公告
張貼人:李家愷公告日期:2019-01-12
 |政治大學華人宗教研究中心-《華人宗教研究》第11期|
 
目次
一般論文
Ritual Change in a Taoist Tradition:
The Development of the Jiao in Northern Taiwan
Yves Menheere (孟逸夫)
 
在地化的女性宗教空間與性別實踐—
新加坡、馬來西亞先天道齋堂的案例考察
蘇芸若
 
非官方標準化與廟祠同構化:
臺灣及馬來西亞的土地神信仰發展的比較研究
徐雨村
 
文化、語法、哲學、與聖經修辭的再現
─以彼得後書1:3-11 為例
周復初、杭極敏
 
書評
社會變遷與教派宗教在現代社會的文化合理性
評陳進國,《救劫—當代濟度宗教的田野研究》
范麗珠
 
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Ritual Change in a Taoist Tradition:
The Development of the Jiao in Northern Taiwan
 
Yves Menheere
PhD, Department of Anthropology, National Taiwan University
  
Abstract
  Taoist ritual is often presented as an unchanging relic of past times, transmitted by generations of masters. While many rites carried out by modern-day Taoist priests in Taiwan do indeed have a long history, a focus on historical continuity may conceal the fact that Taoist ritual can and does change over time. In this paper, I discuss changes in the practice of the jiao, one of the most important Taoist ceremonies, as it is carried out in northern Taiwan. Basing myself on scholarly descriptions of jiao from different eras, records by temples and ethnographic fieldwork carried out between 2013 and 2017, and focusing on the appearance of several new elements in the jiao, I argue that particular historical circumstances may lead to the inclusion of new elements in the program of a jiao and that such elements, once introduced, will quickly become a fixed part of the program.
  
Keywords: Taoism, Taiwan, jiao, ritual change
  
  
道教傳統中的儀式變遷:以台灣北部醮儀發展為例
  
孟逸夫
台灣大學人類學博士
 
摘要 
    道教儀式時常被描述成是歷久傳承不變的活化石,由歷代祖師傳承至今。許多台灣道士至今仍在展演的儀式的確有長久的歷史,但若只聚焦於儀式的歷史延續性則容易忽視儀式能夠隨時代變化並確實有變遷的事實。本文以台灣北部為例,討論醮儀中出現的幾種新元素在特定歷史情境下如何被醮儀吸收成為醮儀節目的一部分,並在被吸收後迅速成為節目中固定的一部分。主要資料為不同學者於不同時期觀察醮儀的學術筆記、廟方出版的醮志,以及筆者自己於2013-2017 的田野紀錄。
  
關鍵字:道教、台灣、醮、儀式變遷
  
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在地化的女性宗教空間與性別實踐—
新加坡、馬來西亞先天道齋堂的案例考察
  
蘇芸若
新加坡國立大學中文系博士
  
摘要
  中國民間宗教先天道於19 世紀中葉傳入馬來亞,在新馬地區相對自由的宗教生態下「在地化」發展,創建了不少承自同一道脈但風格迥異的教派齋堂。坤道齋堂在齋姑的領導下,為女性提供了自我組織和培力的場域,成為在中國文化認知中較為稀見的女性空間。先天道在新馬地區刊印與傳播寶卷的情況,晚至20 世紀70 年代仍可發現,説明宗教經卷對先天道在地發展的作用。其它「在地化」的發展軌跡如承自羅教《五部六冊》的「八部龍經」、與海峽殖民地「娘惹」文化相結合的齋堂、或逐漸與大乘佛教相融合的近況,成爲觀察中國傳統宗教域外發展的獨特案例。本文聚焦齋堂「在地化」的特徵及其作為「性別空間」的定位,從主導性、宗教性、服務性及傳播性等面向探索其在新馬地區的發展歷史與現狀,並從先天道坤道修煉的議題,思考性別意義的成型。
  
關鍵字:先天道;齋堂;齋姑;寶卷
  
  
Localized Female Religious Space and Gendered Religious Practice:
A Case Study of Chinese Vegetarian Halls of Xiantian Dao 先天道 (The Way of Former Heaven) in Singapore and Malaysia
  
Show Ying Ruo
PhD, Department of Chinese Studies, National University of Singapore
  
Abstract
 Xiantian dao, a Chinese popular religious group, spread to Malaysia in the mid-nineteenth century, and developed in the relatively free religious environments of both Singapore and Malaysia, whereby many vegetarian halls were created by various religious denominations.These vegetarian halls stemmed from the same religious tradition, but their forms were widely disparate. Female vegetarian halls, under the leadership of vegetarian nuns (zhaigu 齋姑), offer a space for women's self-assembly and empowerment, and have become a female space relatively unseen in the Chinese cultural sphere. Evidence of the printing and dissemination of precious scrolls by Xiantian dao in Singapore and Malaysia can be found as late the 1970s, illustrating the role of religious texts in the local development of Xiantian dao. Other trajectories of localized manifestations, such as the mutual integration of the Babu longjing 八部龍經 (“Eight Volumes of Dragon Scriptures”) from Luo Jiao’s 羅教 Wubu liuce 五部六冊 (Five Books in Six Fascicles) with Straits-born Chinese (Peranakan Chinese) culture in vegetarian halls or the gradual fusion of these venues with Mahayana Buddhism, have become unique cases to observe the development of traditional Chinese religion outside of Mainland China. From the perspective of leadership, religiosity, service, and the dissemination of textual materials, this article focuses on vegetarian halls, their localized characteristics and their status as a gendered space, before turning to an exploration of the historical development and present status of halls in Singapore and Malaysia. Finally, it reflects on the formation of meanings of gender from the question of cultivation practices at Xiantian dao's female vegetarian halls.
  
Keywords: Xiantian dao 先天道 (Way of the Former Heaven), vegetarian hall, vegetarian nun, precious scroll  
  
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非官方標準化與廟祠同構化:
臺灣及馬來西亞的土地神信仰發展的比較研究
  
徐雨村
國立暨南國際大學東南亞學系兼任助理教授
  
摘要
  本文以非官方標準化及同構化的概念,分析從1970 年代以來,在臺灣及馬來西亞等地的華人社會,將土地神的名稱提升為「福德正神」以及小壇或小祠修建成新廟的過程。在明清時期的敕封制度之下,若干神祇經歷了官方的「標準化」過程。然而,土地神並未納入其中,近來神明名稱改變為「福德正神」的過程,就是透過民間社會的「非官方標準化」來達成。臺灣與馬來西亞在1970 年代之後,在社會變遷與現代化,以及道教、鸞堂及村落等力量的交錯互動下,改造土地神廟宇蔚為風潮,並逐漸認定土地神的正稱為「福德正神」。透過非官方標準化及廟祠同構化的交錯影響,兩地華人的各個社群對於「福德正神」的神格論述、廟宇修建、神像雕塑等,已產生漸趨一致的認知與實踐。
  
關鍵字:土地神、福德正神、標準化、同構化、馬來西亞
  
  
Unofficial Standardization and the Homogenization of Temple Shrines:
A Comparative Study of the Development of Eart God Beliefs in Taiwan and Malaysia
  
Hsu, Yu-tsuen
Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Southeast Asian Studies, National Chi Nan University
  
Abstract
  This article, from the perspective of unofficial standardization and homogenization, analyzes Chinese society in Taiwan and Malaysia since 1970, a period that encompasses the process by which the Earth God was promoted to the honorary designation of Fude zhengshen 福德正神 (Orthodox Deity of Blessed Virtue) and small altars or shrines were renovated into new temples. Many deities underwent an official governmental process of standardization in the system of imperially conferred titles during the Ming and Qing periods. However, the Earth God was not promoted in that process; in recent years, its designation was changed to Fude zhengshen through a process of unofficial standardization in popular society. After 1970, Taiwan and Malaysia, under the driving forces of social change and modernization and in the interplay between Daoism, luantang 鸞堂 (phoenix halls), and local villages, experienced a wave of transformation, whereby Earth God temples were remodeled and people gradually affirmed the deity's orthodox title as Fude zhengshen. Through the interconnected influence of unofficial standardization and the homogenization of temple shrines, these two respective Chinese societies have gradually produced concordant conceptions and practices regarding expositions on the nature of Fude zhengshen, temple construction for the deity, and statues of its likeness.
  
Keywords: Earth God, Fude zhengshen 福德正神 (Orthodox Deity of Blessed Virtue), standardization, homogenization, Malaysia
  
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文化、語法、哲學、與聖經修辭的再現─以彼得後書1:3-11 為例
  
周復初
國立中央大學榮譽教授
 
杭極敏
台灣基督徒信仰研究學會研究員
  
摘要
  聖經使用了許多修辭法,欲翻譯聖經需先分析其修辭法方易理解,之後又需考慮譯入語的修辭表達。譯本比較顯示,譯者們對〈彼得後書〉獨特修辭法的掌握,左右了譯文的修辭表達。「頭韻」修辭法並未再現於英語和漢語譯本中;除此之外,大部分的希臘文修辭法能再現於英語譯本。但是,中國傳統文化影響了「提喻法」、「擬人法」、和「換稱法」在一些漢語譯本中再現。再者,希臘文和英語重形合,而漢語重意合且有精簡連詞的傳統,導致如「重名法」、「階升法」、「連詞迭用」、和「等長排迭法」在各譯本中的再現方式不同。中國古代哲學未發展出形式邏輯的三段論,以致彼後1:3-8 的「省略三段論」並未再現於一些漢語譯本。
  
關鍵字:聖經修辭;修辭的再現;文化;語法;哲學思維
  
  
Culture, Syntax, Philosophy, and Reproduction of Bible Rhetoric in Translations:
The case of 2 Peter 1:3-11
  
Fu-Chu Chou
Honorary Professor, National Central University
 
Chi-Ming Hang
Research Fellow, Christian Belief Research Institute
   
Abstract
  The Bible utilizes many rhetorical methods, thus, translators of the Bible must first analyze its rhetoric in order to better understand the work, before later considering the corresponding counterpart in the target language. A comparison of translations demonstrates that translators' grasp of the unique rhetoric of 2 Peter 1:3-8 influences the expression of rhetoric in the translate text. Rhetorical alliteration does not reappear in English and Chinese translations, but beyond this, the majority of Greek rhetorical methods can be replicated in English translations. However, Chinese traditional culture impacts the reproduction of synecdoche, personification, and antonomasia in Chinese translations. Moreover, both Greek and English stress parataxis, while Chinese, which has a tradition of simplifying connections between clauses or phrases, stresses parataxis. This leads to differences in the reproduction of hendiadys, gradation, polysyndeton, and isocolon in the various translated versions. Ancient Chinese philosophy did not have syllogism so it would be difficult to translate the enthymeme, a kind of truncated syllogistic logic. This factor may have led to the absence of reproduction of enthymeme in some Chinese translations of 2 Peter 1:3-8.
  
Keywords: Bible rhetoric; rhetoric representation; culture; syntax; philosophical
thought
  
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社會變遷與教派宗教在現代社會的文化合理性
評陳進國,《救劫—當代濟度宗教的田野研究》,北京:社會科學文獻出版社,2017。
 
范麗珠
復旦大學社會學系教授
  
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最後修改時間:2019-01-12 AM 12:31

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