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《華人宗教研究》Studies in Chinese Religions

首頁 / 學術出版PUBLICATION / 《華人宗教研究》Studies in Chinese Religions
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日期:2021-01-05

|政治大學華人宗教研究中心-《華人宗教研究》第16期|

 
目次
[特稿]
李豐楙|「保生大帝」的封號之謎

[一般論文]
謝仁壽、周復初|論加爾文和李常受「呼求主名」的教訓與實踐:基督教「終極處境」與中國化

黃柏棋|祖靈是祖先的靈魂嗎?一個比較觀點上的考察—以漢人祖先祭祀和泰雅族rutux 信仰為主要參照點—紀念張光直先生—

洪瑩發、范毅軍、張智傑、廖泫銘|
空間視野與地方知識:臺灣宗教與時空分析的回顧與展望

胡其瑞|數位人文視野下的華人宗教研究:以DocuSky 數位人文學術研究平臺為例

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「保生大帝」的封號之謎

李豐楙
政治大學名譽講座教授

摘要
吳夲是否有「保生大帝」之封,民眾與學界的看法分歧。明初禮部敕封嚴格,已受封、賜額者雖未被廢,但吳真人許多祠廟既未列祀典,保生大帝號也未見於官方記載,故學者認為應屬偽造!其神格既不再上昇,福建青礁、白礁二祖宮仍可與地方道士合作,轉由天師府依據《天壇玉格》受籙並予陞奏,即所謂「道封制」。這些文檢依例焚化,青礁或白礁均未留存,但從遺存資料可以佐證確有其事:一如美國紐約大都會博物館藏封神圖卷,二為道壇遺留的受籙文檢,既可親至天師府陞奏,也可代香遙叩。由此解讀明清神傳(Hagiography)所載的全稱,既有宋代累封的冲應、孚惠、普祐、妙道諸號;而「昊天金闕御史」則屬新封,乃見於《天壇玉格》的正、從四品;「保生大帝」的帝君一級,亦屬道教的高階仙聖。可見其職司由宋元入明清,既由神醫而醫神,亦關聯道教的「天醫院」,故從道教封神制或可排除偽造之說。

關鍵字:吳真人、保生大帝、道封、天壇玉格


The Mystery of the Investiture of the Great Emperor who Protects Life (Baosheng dadi 保生大帝)

Lee Fong-mao
Emeritus Professor, National Chengchi University

Abstract 
Members of the public and scholars disagree on whether Wu Tao 吳夲 was bestowed the honorary title of Baosheng dadi. The Ministry of Rites in the early Ming dynasty tightly controlled the bestowal of titles, but for those deities that had already received an honorary title or been granted an imperial placard they were not stripped of these. However, not only are many shrines and temples dedicated to the Perfected Being Wu (Wu zhenren 吳真人) not listed in the sacrificial registers (sidian 祀典), Baosheng dadi also does not appear in official records; thus, scholars consider the honorary title to be falsified. Wu zhenren never ascended to a higher position, but Qingjiao 青礁 and Baijiao 白礁, two ancestral temples (zugong 祖宮) both located in Fujian province, were still able to cooperate with local Daoist priests to promote the deity. They did so by turning to the register system of the Celestial Master Bureau (Tianshifu 天師府) based on the Jade Models of the Celestial Altar (Tiantan yuge 天壇玉格); this was the so-called “System of Daoist Investiture” (Daofeng zhi 道封制). Any ritual documents from that time that may help us to understand the events of Baosheng dadi’s investiture were burned according to ritual precedent and both temples no longer exist, but we can still confirm the Daoist investiture from other extant sources, such as 1) an illustrated scroll of the investiture of gods preserved in Metroplitan Museum of Art and 2) register records and documents handed down within Daoist altars. With these materials, we can begin to decipher some of the full titles recorded in Ming and Qing dynasty hagiographies, as well as honorifics such as “Surging Resonance” (chongying 冲應), “Trusted Benevolence” (fuhui 孚惠), “Universal Blessing” 普祐, “Wondrous Dao (miao Dao 妙道), and various others, which accumulated during the Song dynasty. Baosheng dadi’s new honorary title, “Imperial Censor of the Golden Portes of the Vast Heavens” (Haotian jinque yushi 昊天金闕御史 can also be found within the lists of ranks and titles of the Tiantan yuge; the category of Imperial Lord (dijun 帝君), to which Baosheng dadi belongs, is also a high-rank of transcendents and sages within Daoism. We can see from the deity’s office and duties that, from the Song and Yuan into the Ming and Qing, Baosheng dadi was promoted from a functionary of divine medicine to become a medicine god, which linked him with Daoism’s “Medical Institute of the Heavens” (Tian yiyuan 天醫院). Thus, by examining the Daoist system of investiture for deities, we might discard the notion that the god’s investiture and honorary title were falsified.

Keywords: Perfected Being Wu (Wu zhenren 吳真人), Great Emperor who Protects Life (Baosheng dadi 保生大帝), Daoist investiture, Jade Protocols of the Celestial Altar (Tiantan yuge 天壇玉格)

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論加爾文和李常受「呼求主名」的教訓與實踐:基督教「終極處境」與中國化

謝仁壽
台灣基督教信仰研究協會研究員
周復初
國立中央大學榮譽教授

摘要
對於華人基督徒而言,「呼求主名」已經成為地方召會的外顯記號之一,似乎與加爾文的改革宗神學毫無關係。事實上,加爾文在《加爾文聖經注釋》和《基督教要義》中至少404 次論及「呼求主名」,而李常受也在《生命讀經》和《新約總論》中論及「呼求主名」至少641 次。他們皆以三一神為「終極處境」,雖各有對舊約和新約的側重,仍不約而同地把「呼求主名」置於其敬拜與操練敬虔的關鍵地位。他們對「呼求主名」的教訓與操練,在三一神觀、基督觀、聖靈觀、救恩觀、教會觀和敬拜讚美等領域皆是高度相似,卻也體現出人觀的差異。地方召會將「呼求主名」作為核心操練,這做法其實更呼應改革宗傳統中對「終極處境」中國化的重視,要求將信仰核心元素完整且準確地轉移至中國的處境中,避免「宗教混合主義」的發生。

關鍵字:加爾文、李常受、呼求主名、終極處境、中國化


The Teaching and Practice of “Calling on the Name of the Lord” by John Calvin and Witness Lee: The “Ultimate Context” of Christianity and Sinicization

Jen-Sou Hsieh
Research Fellow, Christian Belief Research Institute
Fu-Chu Chou
Honorary Professor, National Central University

Abstract
For Chinese Christians, “Calling on the Name of the Lord” has become one of the explicit markers of the Local Church, and it seems to have absolutely no relationship with Calvin’s Reformed Theology. In fact, John Calvin, in his Bible Commentaries and Institutes of the Christian Religion mentions “Calling on the Name of the Lord” at least 404 times, while Witness Lee, in his Life-Study of the Bible and Overview of the New Testament, does so at least 641 times. They both conceive of the Triune God as the “Ultimate Context,” and, although each places different emphasis on the Old and New Testaments, coincidentally place “Calling on the Name of the Lord” in a crucial place within Christian worship and practices of piety. Their teachings and practices regarding the concept are quite similar in terms of their views of the doctrine of God, Christology, pneumatology, soteriology, and ecclesiology, but also reflecting the variation in anthropology. The Local Church considers “Calling on the Name of the Lord” of the core practice. This actually further corresponds with the emphasis placed on the Sinicization of “Ultimate Context” within Reformed Theology traditions. It requires that the core elements of belief be fully and accurately transferred into the Chinese context, thus avoiding the occurrence of religious syncretism.

Keywords: John Calvin, Witness Lee, Calling on the Name of the Lord, Ultimate Context, Sinicization

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祖靈是祖先的靈魂嗎?一個比較觀點上的考察—以漢人祖先祭祀和泰雅族rutux 信仰為主要參照點
—紀念張光直先生—

黃柏棋
政治大學宗教研究所教授

摘要
在討論台灣原住民的信仰時,學者往往將原民的祖靈祭拜與漢人之祖先祭祀相提並論。表面上看來,這兩種祭祀活動皆是對於去世先祖之追思與敬重,然而,兩個宗教祭儀背後涉及對於人的歸屬定位以及人與自然(或超自然)之間關係有著極為不同的看法,必須仔細加以探究,方能闡明兩者之間的根本差異。基本上,有關祖先與祖靈的討論得放在一個有關「宗族」-「家族」與「神靈」-「靈力」的比較架構上來加檢視,同時對兩者所涉及的不同宗教思想內涵加以探究,才能見到兩種信仰所展現的不同風貌。本文即針對者此一問題所觸及的一些複雜層面所做之初步探討。

關鍵字:祖先祭祀、宗族、天、靈、巫


Are “Ancestral Spirits” the Spirits of the Ancestors?: A Comparative Investigation Focusing on Han Chinese Ancestor Worship and the Atayal’s Rutux Beliefs with Reference to the Commemoration of Zhang Guangzhi

Huang, Po-Chi
Professor, NCCU Graduate Institute of Religious Studies

Abstract
When discussing the religious beliefs of Taiwanese indigenous peoples, scholars in Taiwan often draw parallels between their spirit cults and Han Chinese ancestor worship. On the surface, these two kinds of worship both deal with memorializing and venerating the deceased. However, behind these two systems of religious ceremony are ideas involving the nature of humanity and the relationship between humanity and nature (or the supernatural) that are extremely different. It is only when we carefully examine such practices that we can then elucidate their fundamental differences. On the whole, discussions regarding ancestors and ancestral spirits must be placed within a comparative framework that considers the relationship between both clan and family and spirit and spiritual power. At the same time, scholars should investigate the different religious thinking that each system involves; only then, can we see the different styles and features that emerge from the two systems of religious belief. This paper is a preliminary investigation focusing on the complex facets of this issue.

Keywords: ancestor worship, patriarchal clan, heaven, spirit, shaman

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空間視野與地方知識:臺灣宗教與時空分析的回顧與展望

洪瑩發
中央研究院人文社會科學研究中心地理資訊科學專題研究中心博士後研究員
范毅軍
中央研究院人文社會科學研究中心地理資訊科學專題研究中心執行長
張智傑
中央研究院人文社會科學研究中心地理資訊科學專題研究中心專案經理
廖泫銘
中央研究院人文社會科學研究中心地理資訊科學專題研究中心副研究技師

摘要
從空間解讀地方社會與宗教,在地理、歷史等學科長期有相關研究成果,在資訊科技與地理資訊科技興起後,人文與社會科學也逐步應用相關方法與科技,包含宗教研究。中研院於三十年前開始在臺推動地理資訊科學與技術,逐步影響不同學科利用空間分析應用於研究上,相關成果也逐步與傳統地理學產生差異,包含本土宗教的研究,並隨著技術與方法的發展歷程,臺灣民間宗教與空間分析研究也有不同發展與取向。本文即以中央研究院的相關研究與方法轉變為例,介紹臺灣宗教研究與空間分析的相關變化與歷程。除研究歷程變化與相關案例外,本文也將省思隨著新方法與新技術的進步,除我們可以透過更多的視角理解臺灣民間宗教外,在相關研究歷程中,我們與傳統的宗教研究有何不同,也反省與討論研究的各種限制,以及透過當代技術、方法的發展取向,觀察未來的相關趨勢。

關鍵字:宗教空間、時空分析、文化資源地理資訊系統、信仰範圍、數位人文


Spatial Perspectives and Local Knowledge: A Review of Spatiotemporal Analysis for Religion in Taiwan and its Prospects

Hung Ying Fa
Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Center for GIS, Research Center for Humanities and Social Sciences, Academia Sinica
Fan I-chun
Chief Executive Officer, Center for GIS, Research Center for Humanities and Social Sciences, Academia Sinica
Jang Jr-Jie
Project Manager, Center for GIS, Research Center for Humanities and Social Sciences, Academia Sinica
Liao Hsiung-Ming
Assistant Research Technician, Center for GIS, Research Center for Humanities and Social Sciences, Academia Sinica

Abstract
Interpreting religion in local society from spatial perspectives has led to fruitful results in the disciplines of geography and history. Moreover, after the rise of information and geographic information technologies (GIS), scholars in the humanities and social sciences have gradually applied related methods and technologies in their research fields, including within religious studies. Scholars at Academia Sinica began applying geographic information science and technology in Taiwan thirty years ago. This has gradually influenced the implementation of spatial analysis in different disciplines, including research on Taiwan’s local religions, though the applications and results have been somewhat different from those of more traditional geography studies. Following the development of GIS technology and related research methods, studies on Taiwan’s popular religions and their spatial analysis have progressed in a different direction. In this paper, through the examples of Academia Sinica’s relevant research and shift in methodologies, we introduce the evolution of spatial analysis in research on religion in Taiwan. In addition to exploring the course of these changes and pertinent cases, we also reflect on how we, following the advancement of new research methodologies and technologies, can understand popular religion in Taiwan through multiple perspectives, as well as the differences between this work and more traditional studies on religion that arise in the research process. We also consider and discuss the various limitations of spatiotemporal analysis, before examining future trends based on the developmental direction of current technologies and research methodologies.

Keywords: religious space, spatiotemporal analysis, cultural resources geographical information system, scope of beliefs, digital humanities


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數位人文視野下的華人宗教研究:以DocuSky 數位人文學術研究平臺為例

胡其瑞
臺灣大學數位人文研究中心博士後研究人員

摘要
在當代的人文研究場域中,利用數位方式進行研究工作已是常態,在本文中,我們將介紹由臺灣大學數位人文研究中心所建置的「DocuSky 數位人文學術研究平臺」如何協助華人宗教研究者,將個人的研究資料透過平臺工具的轉檔機制,建置成為個人化的雲端資料庫,並協助研究者進行文本詞彙分析、經典文本對讀、田野調查與訪談資料整理、地理空間資訊呈現等研究取徑。藉由對該數位人文學術研究平臺建置理念的闡述,並以實際的研究做為案例分析,探討數位人文研究方法在華人宗教研究上的可行性與其未來的發展性。

關鍵字:數位人文研究平臺、華人宗教研究、數位人文、DocuSky

A Digital Humanities (DH) Approach to the Study of Chinese Religions: The DocuSky Collaboration Platform

Hu Chi-jui
Postdoctoral Researcher, Research Center for Digital Humanities, National Taiwan University

Abstract
In contemporary fields of humanities scholarship, utilizing digital research methods has become more the norm. In this article, we will introduce how the DocuSky Collaboration Platform, developed by the Research Center for Digital Humanities of Taiwan University, can aid scholars of Chinese religions. Using their own personal research data and converting it through the platform’s conversion software, scholars can construct a personalized cloud database. DocuSky can also assist researchers with lexical analysis of texts, comparative textual analysis, organizing fieldwork and interview materials, visualizing geo-temporal information, and other research approaches. Through an exposition of the foundational concepts of this digital humanities research platform, as well as an exploration of a case study of actual research, we discuss the feasibility of applying digital humanities methods to the study of Chinese religions and potential future developments of such approaches.

Keywords: digital humanities research platform, studies of Chinese religions, digital
humanities, DocuSky

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