Florian C. Reiter(常志靜)｜Pre-Song Daoist Exorcism (道教法術) and its Relationship with
Heavenly Masters Daoism
The Need for Both the State and Liturgical Daoism to Complete the Imperial Metaphor: A Case Study of the Cult of Mazu 媽祖
Research Fellow and Director, Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica
In imperial China, state canonization and Daoist canonization bestowed political legitimacy and religious sanctity on a local god. These two bureaucratic canonization processes were mutually complementary, and were the source of local deities’ spiritual efficacy and authority. The two processes mutually conveyed charismatic authority, with the state guaranteeing the Daoist clergy’s role as the arbiters of orthodox Daoism, and the Heavenly Master Zhang 張天師 recognizing the emperor as the true Son of Heaven. The imperial state and liturgical Daoism thus worked to ensure subjects' belief in and obedience to the imperial state. Furthermore, both competition and cooperation existed between liturgical Daoism and local religion. Liturgical Daoism conferred sanctity on local cults, while local deities ensured the efficacy of Daoism.
In this paper, I take the canonization of the local deity Mazu as an example to demonstrate the dual process of the acknowledgement of a new deity. The goddess Mazu was granted several dozen honorary titles by imperial decree, and thus had an intimate relationship with the state. In addition, in the fifteenth century, the goddess received the title of Tianfei 天妃, and was given her own scripture composed by the Daoist clergy. Many anthropologists have already discussed how Chinese folk religion helped to maintain the bureaucratic system in imperial China. Here, I would like to go further by elaborating how Daoism supported imperial ideology. Mazu was granted both political authority and religious legitimacy, which has made her the most popular goddess in the Chinese world. In present day Taiwan, as the final part of the paper shows, the results of Mazu’s canonization are still valid.
Keywords: State canonization, Daoist canonization, imperial metaphor, Mazu 媽祖, Tianfei 天妃
Titles of Daoist Priests in the Daoist Texts of the Six Dynasties Period
Visiting Lecturer, Faculty of Letters, Arts, and Sciences Waseda University
Through a comprehensive collection and analysis of official titles of Daoist priests seen in Six Dyanasties Daoist texts, this paper attempts to clarify the question of what kind of Daoist communities existed behind the collections of Shangqing 上清(Upper Clarity), Lingbao 靈寶 (Numinous Treasure), and Zhengyi 正一 (OrthodoxUnity) scriptures. This paper indicates that the titles of Daoist priests in Six Dynasties Daoist literature can be divided into four groups: (A) titles of “Thearchs and Marchmounts (yuedi 嶽帝), the basic titles of Daoist priests in the Jiangnan 江南 region; (B) titles of “Receiving Scriptures” (shoujing 受經) obtained upon receipt of transmitted Shangqing and Lingbao scriptures; (C) titles of “Registers and Precepts” (lujie 籙戒), the basic titles for Celestial Masters Daoists (Tianshi dao 天師道); (D) titles of “Parish Posts” (zhizhi 治職) related to the parishes of Celestial Masters. Next, the paper points out that in texts prior to the middle period of the Six Dynasties, we only see titles appear independently from categories A, B, C, or D, or in combinations of AB or BC. However, in texts from the later part of the Six Dynasties, “compound titles,” in which categories AB and CD are combined, begin to appear. I argue that, after the middle period of the Six Dynasties, there was interaction between Daoist priests of the Jiangnan region (AB) and Celestial Masters (CD), and the self-identities of the two groups gradually began to mesh. The article discusses the previous usage of vague concepts of schools such as “Shangqing school” and “Lingbao school” in studies on Daoism in the Six Dynasties period. But by combing through textual sources and analyzing the use of titles as noted above, we can, based on an actual textual foundation, gain a more accurate grasp of the Daoist priests behind these bodies of Daoist texts. This is also the significance of this paper.
Keywords: History of Daoism, Daoist schools, Daoist Ordination Ranks
Pre-Song Daoist Exorcism (道教法術) and its Relationship with Heavenly Masters Daoism
Florian C. Reiter
This article challenges common assumptions concerning Song 宋 (960–1279) and Yuan 元 (1279–1368) Daoist exorcism called Wulei fa 五雷法, also referred to as Thunder Magic rituals, and Divine Empyrean Daoism (Shenxiao dao 神霄道) that suggest these traditions introduced a new Daoism in the Song-period or augmented Daoism by adapting to folk-traditions of healing practices and other magic competencies. The author argues that, contrary to assumptions, Daoist exorcist practices were a religious phenomenon that always was associated with Heavenly Masters Daoism (Tianshi dao 天師道). The article explains that Daoist exorcism was conceived as a crucial part of liturgical Daoism in the Heavenly Masters tradition. The author also considers potential reasons for the late inclusion of exorcist rituals in the Daozang 道藏 and their further documentation therein. Arguments are mainly based on canonical biographical sources and expert statements by high ranking Daoists of the Tang 唐