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日期:2020-03-31

 

|政治大學華人宗教研究中心-《華人宗教研究》第14期|

 

目次

[特稿]

  珣|從天妃的朝封與道封思考國家與道教對於地方宗教的一陽一陰的雙重治理



[一般論文]

廣瀨直記|六朝道教文獻的道士稱號



Florian C. Reiter(常志靜)Pre-Song Daoist Exorcism (道教法術) and its Relationship with

 

 

Heavenly Masters Daoism



張超然|規模與取捨:近世黃籙齋儀變遷與明初儀式改革



孫美子|帝國晚期京城的水火記憶──清末民初的火神廟與水會組織

 

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從天妃的朝封與道封思考國家與道教對於地方宗教的一陽一陰的雙重治理

 

  

中研院民族學研究所研究員兼所長

 

摘要

   在帝制中國時期,朝封與道封互相協調,前後搭配,賦予一位神祇的政

 

 

治合法性與宗教神聖性,二者相輔相成,是中國神祇的靈力與權威來源。而

 

 

朝封與道封也使國家與宗教互相證成,一方面,道教是國家政權合法性來源,

 

 

另一方面,朝廷也是道教神聖權威的合法性來源。朝廷與道教共同完成人民

 

 

對於帝國的想像與順從。其次,道教與地方宗教之間有競合關係,道教賦予

 

 

地方宗教神聖性,而地方宗教賦予道教靈驗性。

 

 

  本文以媽祖林默娘在明朝所獲封號說明朝封(陽)與道封(陰),一陽一

 

 

陰先後攜手合作完成對媽祖的承認。亦即,除了帝國對於神鬼加以誥封或取

 

 

締的治理,還有道教對於民間信仰神鬼的馴服。此一陰陽雙重的宗教治理,

 

 

在當代臺灣仍可見,文末以臺南玉二媽為例。

  

關鍵字:朝封、道封、帝國隱喻、媽祖、天妃

  

  

The Need for Both the State and Liturgical Daoism to Complete the Imperial Metaphor: A Case Study of the Cult of Mazu 媽祖

  

Chang Hsun

Research Fellow and Director, Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica


 

Abstrct 

    In imperial China, state canonization and Daoist canonization bestowed political legitimacy and religious sanctity on a local god. These two bureaucratic canonization processes were mutually complementary, and were the source of local deities’ spiritual efficacy and authority. The two processes mutually conveyed charismatic authority, with the state guaranteeing the Daoist clergy’s role as the arbiters of orthodox Daoism, and the Heavenly Master Zhang 張天師 recognizing the emperor as the true Son of Heaven. The imperial state and liturgical Daoism thus worked to ensure subjects' belief in and obedience to the imperial state. Furthermore, both competition and cooperation existed between liturgical Daoism and local religion. Liturgical Daoism conferred sanctity on local cults, while local deities ensured the efficacy of Daoism.

 

 

In this paper, I take the canonization of the local deity Mazu as an example to demonstrate the dual process of the acknowledgement of a new deity. The goddess Mazu was granted several dozen honorary titles by imperial decree, and thus had an intimate relationship with the state. In addition, in the fifteenth century, the goddess received the title of Tianfei 天妃, and was given her own scripture composed by the Daoist clergy. Many anthropologists have already discussed how Chinese folk religion helped to maintain the bureaucratic system in imperial China. Here, I would like to go further by elaborating how Daoism supported imperial ideology. Mazu was granted both political authority and religious legitimacy, which has made her the most popular goddess in the Chinese world. In present day Taiwan, as the final part of the paper shows, the results of Mazu’s canonization are still valid.

  

Keywords: State canonization, Daoist canonization, imperial metaphor, Mazu 媽祖, Tianfei 天妃

  

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六朝道教文獻的道士稱號

  

廣瀨直記

早稻田大學文學學術院兼職講師

  

摘要

  本文通過全面收集和梳理六朝道教文獻中所見的道士稱號(頭銜),嘗試理清上清經、靈寶經、正一經等經典群背後存在著什麼樣的道士群體此一問題。首先本文指出了六朝道教文獻中的道士稱號可以分為如下四種:(A)江南道士的基本稱號「嶽帝稱號」;(B)隨著上清經、靈寶經等經典之傳授所得到的「受經稱號」;(C)天師道的基本稱號「籙戒稱號」;(D)與天師道的治職有關的「治職稱號」。其次指出了在六朝中期以前的文獻中,只是單獨的(A)、(B)、(C)、(D)或(AB)、(CD)組合出現,但到了六朝後期的文獻,開始出現(AB)群和(CD)群組合在一起的「複合性稱號」。我們認為,這是因為六朝中期以後持有(AB)群稱號的江南道士和持有(CD)群稱號的天師道道士彼此間有了交流,並且兩者的自我認識開始逐漸交錯。以前的六朝道教研究,用「上清派」、「靈寶派」等模糊的流派概念來進行討論,但我們通過如上的梳理和分析,可以按照文獻的現實基礎,更加精確地掌握經典群背後所存在的道士們,這也是本文的意義所在。

  

關鍵字:道教史、流派(宗派)、位階制度、法位制度

  

  

Titles of Daoist Priests in the Daoist Texts of the Six Dynasties Period

  

HIROSE Naoki

Visiting Lecturer, Faculty of Letters, Arts, and Sciences Waseda University


  

Abstract

 Through a comprehensive collection and analysis of official titles of Daoist priests seen in Six Dyanasties Daoist texts, this paper attempts to clarify the question of what kind of Daoist communities existed behind the collections of Shangqing 上清(Upper Clarity), Lingbao 靈寶 (Numinous Treasure), and Zhengyi 正一 (OrthodoxUnity) scriptures. This paper indicates that the titles of Daoist priests in Six Dynasties Daoist literature can be divided into four groups: (A) titles of “Thearchs and Marchmounts (yuedi 嶽帝), the basic titles of Daoist priests in the Jiangnan 江南 region; (B) titles of “Receiving Scriptures” (shoujing 受經) obtained upon receipt of transmitted Shangqing and Lingbao scriptures; (C) titles of “Registers and Precepts” (lujie 籙戒), the basic titles for Celestial Masters Daoists (Tianshi dao 天師道); (D) titles of “Parish Posts” (zhizhi 治職) related to the parishes of Celestial Masters. Next, the paper points out that in texts prior to the middle period of the Six Dynasties, we only see titles appear independently from categories A, B, C, or D, or in combinations of AB or BC. However, in texts from the later part of the Six Dynasties, “compound titles,” in which categories AB and CD are combined, begin to appear. I argue that, after the middle period of the Six Dynasties, there was interaction between Daoist priests of the Jiangnan region (AB) and Celestial Masters (CD), and the self-identities of the two groups gradually began to mesh. The article discusses the previous usage of vague concepts of schools such as “Shangqing school” and “Lingbao school” in studies on Daoism in the Six Dynasties period. But by combing through textual sources and analyzing the use of titles as noted above, we can, based on an actual textual foundation, gain a more accurate grasp of the Daoist priests behind these bodies of Daoist texts. This is also the significance of this paper.

  

Keywords: History of Daoism, Daoist schools, Daoist Ordination Ranks  

  

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Pre-Song Daoist Exorcism (
道教法術) and its Relationship with Heavenly Masters Daoism

  

Florian C. Reiter

Humboldt-University, Berlin


  

Abstract

  This article challenges common assumptions concerning Song  (9601279) and Yuan  (12791368) Daoist exorcism called Wulei fa 五雷法, also referred to as Thunder Magic rituals, and Divine Empyrean Daoism (Shenxiao dao 神霄道) that suggest these traditions introduced a new Daoism in the Song-period or augmented Daoism by adapting to folk-traditions of healing practices and other magic competencies. The author argues that, contrary to assumptions, Daoist exorcist practices were a religious phenomenon that always was associated with Heavenly Masters Daoism (Tianshi dao 天師道). The article explains that Daoist exorcism was conceived as a crucial part of liturgical Daoism in the Heavenly Masters tradition. The author also considers potential reasons for the late inclusion of exorcist rituals in the Daozang 道藏 and their further documentation therein. Arguments are mainly based on canonical biographical sources and expert statements by high ranking Daoists of the Tang 


 

 

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